Пагуошское движение ученых
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Российская академия наук

Президиум РАН

63-я Пагуошская конференция учёных

Михаил Дмитриевич
(1913 - 1973), президент
Пагуошского движения ученых, председатель
Советского Пагуошского комитета

Обращение Международной сети инженеров и ученых за глобальную ответственность к европейским и мировым лидерам о необходимости предотвращения ядерной угрозы

The threat of nuclear annihilation, by accident or design, remains the gravest threat to civilization confronting Europe and the World. The 480 US nuclear weapons based in Europe contribute to this threat. We call upon European and World leaders to provide leadership in confronting and ending this threat. For the safety and security of the peoples of Europe and the World, we appeal:

To the leaders of the non-nuclear European governments, to move toward the elimination of the threat of nuclear weapons in Europe and the World by calling upon the United States to remove all its nuclear weapons from European soil and adjoining waters and have these weapons returned to the US for dismantlement;
To the leaders of NATO countries, including the three NATO nuclear weapons states – the US, UK and France – to abandon the NATO policy of first use of nuclear weapons and replace it with clear and legally binding No First Use policy;
To the leaders of all nuclear weapons states, declared and de facto, to initiate negotiations on the universal elimination of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction.

Removal of nuclear weapons from Europe – Background document The United States deploys tactical nuclear weapons in six NATO countries, in Britain (Lakenheath) and in five non-nuclear states: Belgium (Kleine Brogel), Germany (B?chel and Ramstein), Italy (Aviano), Netherlands (Volkel) and Turkey (Incirlik). In total, 480 gravity bombs of the B61 family are deployed, each with a power between 0.3 and 170 kilotons TNT, the higher limit corresponding to eight times the Hiroshima bomb. The weapons are stored at US airbases under US control or are kept under US custody at national airbases. In times of war the latter will be delivered by personnel of the national air forces of the involved NATO countries for which the pilots and the airbase staff assigned to such missions are continuously trained. The military authorities of all NATO members, with the exception of France take part in the NATO Nuclear Planning Group, where decisions are made about strike missions and targeting. NATO officials admit that the arguments for the present deployment of nuclear weapons shifted from military to political: they are kept to support the NATO policy of shared risks, the US nuclear presence in Europe and the transatlantic bond. On the other hand, the bombs have been modernized and upgraded in the last seven years and the potential targeting is extended from the area of the European Command (EUCOM) to the Central Command (CENTCOM) which would allow strike missions to Middle Eastern countries, specifically Iran and Syria.

The last fact and the “first-strike principle,” according to which NATO may use nuclear weapons without being attacked by them, intensify the threat of these weapons to the NATO countries and to all mankind. If NATO gets involved in a war and NATO countries use their atomic weapons, they are open for retaliation.

The presence of nuclear weapons in the European countries violates the statutes of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which has been signed by all concerned countries. The NPT forbids the United States to transfer nuclear weapons to non-nuclear states and the non-nuclear states to receive them. In Article VI of the Treaty the nuclear weapon states accept the obligation to reduce their nuclear arsenals and, finally, will abolish them completely. The presence of nuclear weapons is a permanent source of uncertainty and a threat to the continental and global security. It is a stimulus for other nations to acquire similar weaponry.

On the other hand, removal of the US nuclear weapons presently deployed in Europe would improve the relations with Russia and take away the obstacle that impedes an agreement about reduction or elimination of the extensive Russian arsenal of tactical nuclear weapons. It would open the possibility for the establishment of a nuclear-free zone in Central and Eastern Europe and be a first step to full compliance of the nuclear powers with the rules of the NPT.

International Network of Engineers and Scientists for Global Responsibility


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